Blacklock alleges that the Defendants have unlawfully distributed its articles within their respective departments or agencies and have breached its copyright after having obtained the articles by way of single-use subscriptions or through third-party sources. According to the Defendants, Blacklock employs a pattern of writing misleading or inaccurate articles about an organization with the expectation that these articles would be accessed and shared internally. Blacklock then makes Access to Information Act requests for evidence of distribution, and claims damages through various means, including litigation.
"allow all actions to proceed until the pre-trial conference, and only then to consider how to manage the trials."
 In her decisions, Prothonotary Tabib acknowledged that the facts of each case are different as both the alleged copyrighted materials and the specific alleged acts of infringement are distinct to each case. However, she stressed that “commonality and similarities” reside in the defences raised in the ten actions. These common defences are: whether Blacklock owns the copyright in the articles alleged to have been infringed; the novel defence of abuse of copyright; the defence of fair dealing when articles are copied/used for internal government reporting purposes; the proper assessment of damages (whether they be loss of profit apportioned per article or the value of an institutional licence); and the availability of punitive damages. Prothonotary Tabib also noted that the amounts claimed in the actions filed by Blacklock are modest, ranging from $10,000 to $55,000 when they are specified.
The motion was contested, it was contested extensively and it took a lot of time. There was a need for cross-examination. In the course of the argument, I made comments to the effect that the Plaintiff’s argument and choice of the way in which it chose to understand questions or construed questions was obtuse to the point of being obstructive.
 In her Orders, Prothonotary Tabib concluded that it was in the interests of justice to stay the Nine Actions given that 1) the issues raised by the various actions significantly overlapped, 2) a stay would avoid costly duplication of judicial and legal resources, 3) a real risk of contradictory decisions existed, 4) Blacklock would not suffer prejudice, and 5) proceeding with the ten actions would cause prejudice to the Defendants. I am of the view that each of these five considerations fall well within the discretion of Prothonotary Tabib and that none of them reflects a reliance on a wrong legal principle or a misapprehension of the facts in granting the stays of proceedings sought by the Defendants.
 In fact, I am convinced that Prothonotary Tabib was right to take these factors into account in her assessment of the interest of justice at stake in this case and in ensuring the just, most expeditious and least expensive determination of the Nine Actions and the Finance Action.
 First, I agree with the Defendants and Prothonotary Tabib that there is a significant overlap of issues and facts between the Nine Actions and the Finance Action, and that this was a proper consideration to retain. This overlap includes the ownership of copyright by Blacklock, the defences of copyright misuse and fair dealing, as well as the proper assessment of damages and the availability of punitive damages. Blacklock tries to distinguish the Finance Action from the other actions because the distributed articles were obtained from a third party and not through its subscription. However, the Finance Action concerns the same pattern of conduct and core issues as the other actions. In addition, the issue of copyright ownership in the Finance Action relates to the defence of abuse of copyright raised in all actions. Lastly, the assessment of Blacklock’s actual damages and availability of punitive damages is a recurring theme in all actions.
 Second, Prothonotary Tabib was not clearly wrong in relying on the avoidance of costly duplication of judicial and legal resources in support of her decisions. The Orders considered the judicial resources that would be saved by the stay, such as a multiplicity of pre-trial conferences and likely procedural motions, and several separate trials resulting in weeks of hearings. Prothonotary Tabib further estimated that even a consolidated trial would require at least three weeks and would delay the determination of even the most advanced actions.
 I emphasize that there are numerous common legal issues raised by the Defendants in the ten actions. The Defendants rely on the doctrine of abuse of copyright as a basis to justify their assertion that Blacklock’s actions in a given context amount to copyright trolling. While this matter will be ultimately determined on the facts adduced in each specific case as to whether there has been copyright misuse, there are nonetheless common underlying legal issues being raised. Similarly, while the questions relating to damages, the value of Blacklock’s license for its product and the defence of fair dealing are questions where the factual assessment of the evidence will play a role, they raise comparable underlying legal questions that can be determined and that could be narrowed in the Finance Action.